Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Concept of Masculinity in Things Fall Apart Free Essay Example, 1750 words

While such reasons of beating a wife maybe flimsy, Okonkwo beats his wife just to show her who was powerful in the household. In this regard, Booker indicates Okonkwo â€Å"shows coercive power when he beats up his wives† (249). Bloom notes, â€Å"Okonkwo is struggling to right the father’s wrongs, to make up to his family for those weaknesses and become a model for male Igbo righteousness† (147). In this regard, the fear of failing like the father consumes Okonkwo and drives him to embrace masculinity albeit in an ignorant way. Thus, the concept of masculinity plays the role of showing strength and the lack of weakness in a man. For this reason, Okonkwo wants to shape his son, Nwoye, to be like him since he fears weaknesses. In effect, Okonkwo becomes a very demanding person. Hence, Okonkwo considers Nwoye lazy and more like a woman, which is a character Okonkwo associates with Nwoye’s grandfather. Achebe supports this point by noting that â€Å"Nwoye was twelve years old but was already causing his father great anxiety for his incipient laziness† (p. 10). Evidently, Okonkwo could not deal with such tenderness from a man; especially a man who is a relation. We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept of Masculinity in Things Fall Apart or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now On one occasion, Okonkwo was unhappy with the size of the yams his son was cutting. Effectively, he told his son that, â€Å"If you split another yam of this size, I shall break your jaw† (32). In effect, such a statement illustrates Okonkwo’s catastrophic flaw in disposition, which exemplifies his obsession with masculinity. However, Bloom notes that this is overcompensation, which â€Å"is a common behavior among those seeking to restore family honor and Okonkwo was no exemption† (148). According to Booker, the concept of masculinity depicts economic power as â€Å"seen in Okonkwo’s enterprising spirit† (250). In this regard, the strength in Okonkwo helped him prosper and provide for his family, even in instances when there was drought and famine in Umuofia. Case in point, Achebe notes that Okonkwo borrowed â€Å"a hundred seed of yams, toiled hard on his farm, and realized a bountiful harvest† (18). This is in sharp contrast to his father who could not feed his family and lived in continuous debt. Indeed, Bloom supports this view and notes that, â€Å"Okonkwo blames his father for wasting his time by making music on his flute, socializing and communing with nature instead of amassing wealth and prestige for his family. Instead of making money, he borrows it and accumulates debt† (144). Thus, Okonkwo’s father lived in contrast to the beliefs of the Igbo people and expectations on men.

Monday, May 18, 2020

New Geological Discoveries The Last Couple Hundred Years

We live in a relentless society characterized by spectacular scientific innovation and research. This innovation continuously morphs the foundation of how we understand the world, including our philosophical ideologies and religion. New geological discoveries the last couple hundred years has undermined many Literal-historical views on how the earth was created. Churches that were once anchored on the young earth hypothesis now face a split between those who hold steadfast to their traditional foundation, and those two branch out their beliefs to accommodate the scientific discovery. A multitude of theories such as the Day-Age, Gap and Framework have come up from the mix of postulations. Before I came into this class, I had begun to develop my own notions about the way in which the world was created, but had a very unclear picture of how the flood, radiometric dating, and layers of sediment played into the whole picture. My ideas were congregated from a mixture of what I was tau ght at my modern evangelical church, what I had learned in public school, and what I had read in scripture. I however, faced a discontinuity within this area because while I knew what I believed, I didn’t know why understanding this issue mattered. Thanks to this discussion about Genesis and geology, I have developed a clearer picture why and how I believe in certain theories and philosophies. It also has enabled me to develop an understanding of how science and religion are separate entities.Show MoreRelatedAmerican Pageant Chapter 1 Summary1478 Words   |  6 PagesShaping North America 350 million years ago- The Appalachian Mountains formed 225 million years ago- Earth’s supercontinent broke up into separate continents. 135-25 million years ago- Western North American mountain ranges formed. 10 Million years ago- North America’s basic geological shape is formed 2 Million years ago- The Ice Age begins; glaciers carve into the land creating formations such as the Great Lakes. 10,000 years ago- The Ice Age ends Peopling the Americas Evidence suggestsRead MoreEssay on A Century of Physics3573 Words   |  15 Pagesthousand years of intellectual struggle that began with the Greek philosophers, physical scientists had reason to believe that they were beginning to understand the universe. Their theories of matter and energy, of electricity and magnetism, of heat and sound and light were confirmed in laboratories throughout the world with increasing precision. Experimentation was the method and mathematics the language of a powerful coherent body of knowledge called classical physics. For a few years beforeRead MoreAnalysis Of Zealot By Reza Aslan1860 Words   |  8 Pagestribute to Caesar, and his arrest and death. But, in fact those events do exactly the opposite of what Aslan proposes. Firstly, Jesus had walked many, many miles on foot in order to perform acts of God, which is truly humbling, and is entering the last city before his gruesome torture and death. So, he enters Jerusalem for the first time in his life he rides triumphantly and in some, well deserved, comfort. Also, Aslan misinterprets Jesus’ intention on his entrance. Jesus does not want to announceRead MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words   |  75 Pages................................. 4 Adventurers and Explorers: Amelia Earhart (Female Aviation Pioneer) ................................................................................................ 5 Christopher Columbus (â€Å"Discoverer† of the New World?)........................................................................ 7 Sacajawea (Mysterious Native American Guide) ....................................................................................... 9 Artists, Authors, and Musicians: Read MoreCommon Knowledge : How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know56617 Words   |  227 Pagesinsight. Page 1 Chapter 1 Introduction A great cartoon in the New Yorker some years back showed two venerable men, obviously scientists, sitting back to back at their respective desks. One says to the other, It s just come to my attention that we ve both been working on the same problem for the last twenty-five years. The cartoon is funny because of both the truth and the absurdity of the situation. It is not news to organizations that they need to find ways to keep from continually reinventingRead MoreHbr When Your Core Business Is Dying74686 Words   |  299 PagesSUMMARIES PANEL DISCUSSION There are 193 countries in the world. None of them are energy independent. So who’s holding whom over a barrel? The fact is, the vast ma jor the few energy-producin ity of countries rely on g nations that won the geological lottery, ble ssing them with abunda nt hydrocarbons. And yet , eve of raw resources import n regions with plenty some form of energy. Saudi Arabia, for examp le, the world’s largest oil exporter, imports ref ined petroleum produc ts like gasolineRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesothers who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wide readership. Professor Stephen Ackroyd, Lancaster University, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Soviet Union And The Cold War - 1660 Words

Former President Jimmy Carter once stated, â€Å"When I was in the White House, I was confronted with the challenge of the Cold War. Both the Soviet Union and I had 30,000 nuclear weapons that could destroy the entire earth and I had to maintain the peace† (â€Å"Jimmy Carter†). This statement has seemingly remained truthful from the point when Soviet Russia and America worked together to stem, and eventually end, the tide of Nazi Germany’s imperialistic overthrow of Europe. Since the end of World War II to the present day, relations between Russia and America have declined due to the Cold War, improved due to Russia s transition to democracy, and are reverting back to Cold War standards in relation to political involvement and economic standards,†¦show more content†¦Twelve years later, another â€Å"proxy† military conflict occurred in Vietnam when a similar division to that of the Korean War was present. The Russians once again took action to a rm the Northern, and Communist, Vietnamese, whereas America armed the democratic South. After the war dragged on and it was apparent that the South was losing, America sent in troops, illegally, to fight against the Russian armed Northern Vietnamese (Garrett). In the scope of world history, this misdemeanor committed by the U.S. drifted off into nothingness, being that it was done to combat Communism, but, at the time, it truly highlighted America’s undying mission to ensure that Communism never reached America, or any of its allies, even if that meant â€Å"doing the wrong things for the right reasons.† A final military conflict, but by no means the least important, was the Cuban Missile Crisis. In October of 1962, tensions reached a breaking point in Cuba, so much so that nuclear armageddon was narrowly averted. Going back a few years, Nikita Khrushchev, Russia’s premier at the time, and Cuban dictator Fidel Castro were in an agreement that was awfully suspici ous to the U.S.. Both of these anti-American nations being so close in proximity to the U.S. and being in an agreement with, more than likely, hidden agendas threw a large red flag in American national security. With haste, recon missions were deployed in an attempt to discover the true purpose of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alcohol Use, Abuse, And Related Accidents Among College...

Question: Alcohol uses among college students-What are the trends in alcohol use, abuse, and related accidents among college aged women versus men? Background National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) defines low risk drinking as less than 4 drinks in a day.1 On the other hand, binge drinking as a pattern of drinking makes blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level to 0.07h/dL. This level is typically reached after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men in approximately 2 hours. Drinking level is shown to increase 5 times more of drinking problems at three drinks and greater thereafter. Negative consequences are more likely to be associated when there are more than three drinks of alcohol consumption.2 Approximately 40 to 45% of college students in the US report engaging in heavy episodic drinking.3 Consequences of heavy drinking are widespread which include academic problems, unwanted sexual experiences, physical injuries, and death. A study titled Are Social Norms the Best Predictor of Outcomes among Heavy-Drinking College Students? by Neighbors et al found that social norms were the best predictors of typical weekly alcohol consumption amongst college students.3 In other words, perceived descriptive norms and approval of friends were the best predictor of heavy drinking in college years. Although men reported consistent alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, alcohol consumption among female college students seem to be increasing nowadays.4 According toShow MoreRelatedAlcohol As A Dangerous Deadly Weapon1677 Words   |  7 Pagesamendment, which banned all alcohol from being manufactured, transported, and sold in the United States. But it is ironic how the prohibition just brought in more of what it was trying to outlaw. The American citizens of course did not like this law so they eventually opened more bars and kept drinking illegally. Even going back to indigenous roots of Latino/Hispanics, alcohol has been a huge component to celebrations, traditions and social upbringings. The use of alcohol can be seen as one of theRead MoreUnderage Drinkers And The Drinking Age1237 Words   |  5 PagesAdults’ drink, which is no secret. Among these adults there are underage drinkers. As these underage adults indulge in this activity, they do so in hiding, pre-gamin g before they actually go out. Underage adults are binge drinking and doing drugs before they leave their house, then they are out on the road, in public places, and making irrational decisions. If only these adults didn’t feel the need to pre-game, and get as belligerent as the can before they go out, because once they do that’s theRead MoreThe Effects Of Underage Drinking On The United States874 Words   |  4 PagesThe abuse of alcohol among teenagers in the United States is universal and destructive. Teenagers believe drinking to be the cool that they must do to fit in with a crowd or become the popular one, when they do not realize all it brings is harm. Underage drinking has been one of the largest unsolved problems in history. Although many ideas have been made and put into practice, like raising the drinking age, harsher punishments, and, at one point, banning it all-together, nothing people do can stopRead MoreResearch Paper Drinking Age1565 Words   |  7 Pagesthere will be less alcohol related injuries and deaths from vehicle accidents, as well less alcohol abuse among teens due to binge drinking. On the other side, people in favor of lowering the drinking age believe that since turning eighteen is considered an adult one should entail the rights and responsibilities. The debate surrounding the drinking age is an ongoing battle, and it continues to flare up around the country. Millions of peoples are affected each day by alcohol. People do not realizeRead MorePersuasive Essay On Underage Drinking1515 Words   |  7 Pagesagree that alcohol should not be given or allowed to children or young adults under a certain age. Alcohol is a substance that is very dangerous and if you used incorrectly or immaturely the consequences can be great danger to the users or the ones around them. The topic of lowering the drinking age has been in discussion for many decades. â€Å"Between 1970 and 1976, 29 states lowered their age for drinking alcohol. The results were catastrophic. Highway deaths among teenagers and young adults skyrocketedRead More Consequences of Underage Alcohol Use Essay562 Words   |  3 PagesUnderage Alcohol Use   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alcohol is the most widely used drug among youth. It causes serious and potentially life-threatening problems for this population. Research indicates that drinking is associated with risk-taking and sensation-seeking behavior among adolescents. Alcohol has disinhibiting effects that may increase the likelihood of unsafe activities.In 1997, 21 percent of the young drivers 15 to 20 years old who were killed in crashes were intoxicated. For young drivers, alcohol involvementRead MoreThe Effects of Underage Drinking Essay853 Words   |  4 PagesEvery year, thousands of minors die from the use of alcohol. Many young adults abuse the drinking age policy. It is put in effect for substantial reasons, which contribute in making the safest environment for all. Drinking underage is not only illegal, but also damages one’s health tremendously. Furthermore, drinking in large amounts is extremely dangerous and can cause detrimental things to occur. There have been numerous attempts to create a law to lower the drinking age, but none have gone throughRead MoreThe Minimum Legal Drinking Age1594 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Amethyst Initiative. The Amethyst Initiative is a groups of over 100 university and college presidents and chancellors from around the nation with the goal of lowering the drinking age to 18 (Fitzpatrick et al. 1608). The initiative was started by John McCardell, former president of Middlebury College, as a way to encourage other universities to be actively engaged in decreasing unsafe drinking on college campuses. Specifically, the Amethyst Initiative is attempting to curtail binge drinkingRead MoreDrinking Age1012 Words   |  5 Pagessources have proven higher drinking ages have a positive effect on society. Alcohol is harmful to the development of younger people. Research has shown that an adult is less likely to binge drink (have five or more drinks in a row). According to statistics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, teens become intoxicated twice as fast as adults. Because the teens get drunk faster they are less likely to know when toRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol And Tobacco On The Age Of Addiction981 Words   |  4 Pageslifestyles and over work, obsession with sports or video games, alcohol abuse, or drug abuse. A person can end up with a drug addiction or alcohol addiction at any age. Younger people face different social pressures surrounding drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse is often related to negative experiences at some point during life. Researchers have found that abuse at any age can influence an individual s choice to turn to drugs or alcohol. Middle age and elderly deal with life changes s uch as divorce

Domestic Violence in the Lgbt Community Free Essays

string(51) " why female domestic violence is such a big issue\." Domestic Violence is fundamentally different in LGBT relationships for numerous reasons. There are many causal and contributory factors that make domestic violence in the LGBT community uniquely different than male-to-female or female-to-male battering. To understand these differences one must recognize domestic violence beyond the stereotypical heterosexual manifestation. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence in the Lgbt Community or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to A Professional Guide to Understanding Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence, same-sex battering mirrors heterosexual battering, but same-sex victims have fewer resources and are less protected. Seven states define domestic violence in a way that excludes same-gender victims. Making matters worse is the fact that in some states sodomy is still considered a crime which forces a victim to confess to a crime in order to prove a domestic relationship. Many women’s shelters refuse services or safety to same-sex victims. Since same-sex marriage is not legal, many families are not considered â€Å"real families† in the eyes of the law, making it more difficult for these victims to get help. Perhaps one of the most compelling reasons LGBT domestic violence is so different is found in the unique communities of LGBT people. LGBT communities â€Å"provide social forums, rites of passage, rituals for celebration, and bodies of art and literature that combat isolation and allow us to explore our full potentials (Bartlet, 1993). † Because many LGBT people feel shunned and excluded from the American ideal, they have forged their own communities as refuge from the inequalities and persecution of mainstream America. The tools a batterer uses to maintain control, like power and control, cut across all lines of gender identity and sexual orientation, but a batterer’s behavior is always peppered with community influences. Batterers play on their victim’s vulnerabilities and community values to maintain control. The volumes of hate, hostility, and condemnation directed at LGBT people from mainstream America encourage self-loathing and internalized homophobia. It covertly forces isolation and creates a false sense of safety from within the community. And LGBT batterers manipulate those difficult realities to employ highly effective weapons against their partners. So community is a strong contributing factor to domestic violence in the LGBT community. The Frustration-Aggression theory of domestic violence adds another distinction to LGBT domestic violence. In essence, this theory opines that human beings can become violent when their goals are blocked. For gay male and female abusers, this theory is painfully true. Throughout childhood, before sexuality begins to develop, gay youngsters, like everyone else, think about and plan their future selves. They negotiate a life path within the frames of family, community, society, and the culture in which they live. In early adolescence, when sexuality comes to the fore and one’s homosexuality is questioned, those dreams of family and community begin to feel too exclusionary. This can be a time of tremendous stress; the sense of being inherently different and â€Å"bad† can be overwhelming. All the evils about homosexuals one has likely heard in the media and around the family can be internalized, and begin a pattern of self-hate and destruction. All adolescents ask the question, â€Å"Who am I? †, but for the adolescent homosexual it becomes increasingly more difficult to recognize that one is not necessarily growing up to be the person he originally imagined. And the person he is becoming is reduced to villainy by mainstream America. He begins to realize that many of his life goals are blocked, like marriage and basic human rights. Without a strong support system to negotiate and redefine his identity, this can be a traumatic and damaging experience. But family support is often lacking and positive gay role models are scarce. Coming out in adolescence is often a terrifyingly alone experience that can damage the soul and lead to frustration and anxiety that will carry on into future relationships. Coming to terms with second-class citizenship in the families, communities, and society in which he has imagined himself so abundantly different can result in frustration and feed the self-hate that has already started seeping in. And anger develops when certain fundamental goals are blocked. With such rite-of-passage circumstances as these, it is no wonder that domestic violence happens in 39% of gay male relationships (Merrill, pg. 44). A psychological aspect that contributes to the escalation of Domestic Violence in the LGBT community can be associated with the term heterosexism. Many use the term heterosexism to describe an individual who strongly believes in heterosexual relationships. Heterosexual relationships are described as being attracted to the opposite sex and being in intimate contact with only the opposite sex. Heterosexism is used in correlation to negative attitudes, bias, and discrimination of those who favor same sex relationships. The reason why this term is becoming associated with same-sex relationships that involve domestic violence is due to the use of power and control related to the term heterosexism. The power and control that ensues from heterosexism being used could be easily be described as â€Å"outing the victim in the abusive relationship. † One gathers an idea of the victim’s â€Å"out† status within the individual’s work, friends, and family relationships. Inquiring if the victim has told those he or she cares for about his or her sexual preference usually does this. Knowing this information is beneficial to the abuser because it will allow the abuser to control what the victim will say to the police, or anyone, about any abuse that would exist in the relationship. The contradiction of this term would exist within the abusers identity. The abuser would use the victim’s fear of exposure against that individual as if it would be a bad thing to come out to those who care for and love the victim. The abuser will use ideology related to bigotry slanders, faith, natural law, or popular beliefs as a weapon to keep this victim in the cycle of abuse. Same-sex female domestic violence is an unspoken problem in the lesbian, bisexual, transgender population. Facts about lesbian domestic violence, myths within the population and services are all misconceived reasons why female domestic violence is such a big issue. You read "Domestic Violence in the Lgbt Community" in category "Papers" There is not a lot of data on female same-sex domestic violence. Therefore, most information is taken from heterosexual domestic violence cases and small population samples from the lesbian community such as women’s festivals and lesbian cruises. Within the lesbian, bisexual, transgender community domestic violence is taboo. A fact from the Lesbian Partner Violence Fact Sheet is 17 – 45 % of lesbians have reported being involved in at least one case of abuse (Rose, 2000). Lesbian victims of abuse are fearful of speaking out for reasons of being judged and pushed out by the lesbian community as a whole. The lesbian, bisexual, transgender communities within a certain area can be small. Unpleasant public allegations ostracize the person and take away community support. Lesbians have few choices of where and how to get help and support, yet the numbers of lesbians affected by domestic violence is about the same as the number of female victims in heterosexual couples (Pattavina, 2007). Types of abuse in female same-sex domestic violence is similar to heterosexual couples, such as hitting, pushing, slapping, disrupting sleep, having sex when one doesn’t want to, and not talking to one another. Behaviors in female same sex domestic violence also include â€Å"jealousy, controlling, becoming involved too quickly, unrealistic expectations, blaming others for their feelings, and hypersensitivity† (rainbowdomesticviolence. itgo. com). A difference is that in a small-knit community, fear of losing support from family and friends isolates and potentially prevents the victim from getting help or even reporting the abuse (Hassaouneh, 2008). But the fear of being â€Å"outted† if that partner is recognized in public, at work, or by the family as being a lesbian is a homophobic fear that hampers the victim in leaving or getting support (Hassouneh, 2008). There is also the isolation within minority groups of lesbians, bisexuals, and transgenders. Lesbians often have less support in terms of cultural, ethnic, and religious background to turn to in time of difficulty, like domestic violence (Pattavina et al. , 2007). Especially in cultures where women are not as valued as much as men, it can lead to feelings of discrimination within one’s own community. There is a myth among the lesbian community that a utopia exists. The myth about â€Å"lesbian utopia† is that women are sensitive, nurturing, caring, and get along better because of those reasons. Lesbian utopia is just that, a myth. Women do hit, hurt, and violate other women. Another myth about female intimate partner couples is that there is a more masculine â€Å"butch† woman and a more feminine woman in the relationship. That is not always the case. Yet another myth is that the â€Å"butch† or masculine women is the batterer. Again that is not always the case. A big myth is that female same-sex violence is not as dangerous or serious as heterosexual or gay male couple’s domestic violence (Hassouneh 2008). Violence is violence regardless of who perpetrates it. Female intimate partner abuse is under-reported (McClennen and Gunther, 1999). Many lesbians are afraid of losing the only support system they have (Miller et al, 2000). It may be that the perpetrator is their only support system and there is no knowledge of whom or where to turn for help. Then there is the lesbian who does report and she, the victim, ends up getting arrested (Hassouneh, 2008). The misinformation among law enforcement about how to identify the victim in same-sex domestic violence cases is not always cut and dry (Miller et al. , 2000). There are perpetrators that act as victims. The larger of the two women may get arrested even if she is not the masculine one in appearance. Or the more masculine-appearing woman does get arrested although she may be the victim. There are not always services for women who are lesbian, bisexual, or transgender in the community (Hassouneh, 2008). Either, shelters don’t accept women from the lesbian, bisexual, transgender community or there is no legal standing within the state to substantiate a crime. Many states do not recognize same-sex relationships therefore there are no laws in regards to protection. Many victims in female intimate partner relationships may have experienced violence from a heterosexual relationship in the past. Also â€Å"lesbian individuals are more likely to experience domestic abuse at the hands of their partners than to be exposed to antigay violence perpetrated by strangers† (Pattavina et al. , 2007). A study done by Blaise Fortunata and Carolynn Kohn (2003) of 82 participants, 25 being batterers and 57 non-batterers, states batterers were more likely to have been victims of sexual and/or physical abuse in their childhoods. Also, there was a higher use of drugs and alcohol among batterers. The study suggested some personality traits a batterer would have, such as â€Å"antisocial, aggressive, borderline, paranoid and delusional† (Fortunata and Kohn, 2003). These traits would be seen as lacking in the areas of â€Å"poor boundaries, impulse control, problem solving, affect regulation, along with fear of abandonment, jealousy, low self esteem and an inflated sense of entitlement† (Fortunata and Kohn, 2003). Although Harvey Wallace, the author of the class textbook, would say that there are not any specific characteristics that would describe an abuser. Wallace then goes n to cite factors by other researchers that backup what was depicted in the Fortunata and Kohn study. Factors or characteristics such as the abuser having â€Å"abuse in the family of origin, low self-esteem, male superiority, authoritarian personality and copes by minimizing the abuse† are Wallace’s (2008) examples. The first step in getting treatment as a victim is to accept that the victim is a victim. Reaching out for help, looking up shelter phone numbers and calling them, or getting a plan together for when the victim needs to get out are some good first steps (rainbowdomesticviolence. itgo. com). Educate the victim in how to create a safety plan by putting personal items such as birth certificate, credit cards, and medications all together so one can leave quickly (rainbowdomesticviolence. itgo. com). Have clothes and hygiene products available in the car or at a friend’s house. Give the victim time to regroup. Her life has been turned upside-down, and the healing process will take a while. When examining homosexual relationships, meaning male-to-male relationships, we see that studies as a whole indicate they have higher rates of promiscuity and violent behavior than heterosexual couples. We must rely on studies for more accurate rates of domestic violence in homosexual couples because much of the abuse is under-reported. Under reporting is due to largely the same reasons we have discussed about why lesbian victims fear asking for help from law enforcement, friends, or family. The American Journal of Public Health has published a detailed study of domestic violence victimization in the homosexual community. It focused on four geological areas, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The study resulted in 2,881 complete interviews (Merrill, pg. 23). In these interviews the men answered highly personal questions under strict confidentiality. This was a large groundbreaking study that has been the cornerstone of homosexual domestic violence research. It was revealed that 39% of those studied reported being battered by their spouse at least once in the last five years. This figure was much higher than heterosexual women victimizations at 11. 6% (Merrill, pg. 44). Men infected with the AIDS virus were more at risk for psychological and physical abuse than their HIV negative peers, and were more likely to be victimized in a sexual manner (Merrill, pg. 1). Solid research like this helps to open our eyes to a real problem with homosexual domestic violence, and it needs to be addressed. We need to de-sensitize law enforcement officials and set up more support for homosexual victims and therapy for perpetrators. There is a direct link between high rates of promiscuity and partner violence because cheating is common. Having multiple partn ers outside of the relationship can dilute the quality of the relationship; furthermore, it blurs boundary lines. Promiscuity commonly leads to jealousy, which in turn leads to emotional and physical abuse (Cruz, pg. 60). The sexual relationships of gay males are plagued with domestic violence, just as lesbian and heterosexual relationships are. There are many similarities and differences when considering the factors that go into domestic violence when looking at gay males versus lesbians and heterosexuals †¦ lets take a look at a few of them. As discussed before, lesbians have a fear of being â€Å"outted† when others are alerted to the abuse happening in their relationships. Gay males who have not fully come out of the closet have this same fear, which may cause them to not report abuse by their spouses. However, HIV rates run much higher in the gay male population than in the lesbian population, and perpetrators have been known to blackmail their victims with the threat of revealing their HIV- positive status (Cruz pg. 164). In terms of law enforcement and how it often handles cases of LGBT domestic violence, they stereotypically see the bigger or more masculine partner as the perpetrator, which often times sends the victim to jail. Police are primarily responsible for enforcing domestic violence laws. Legal agencies, in general, are conservative, and many don’t try to conceal their homophobia. This trait begins with the police, and goes up through criminal justice system. The DA’s, judges, and probation officers have their own social biases, which often do not support gay and lesbian victims. This is especially problematic for criminal prosecutors who enforce victim protection orders. The patriarchal nature of our society makes it difficult for law enforcement to enforce domestic violence laws. This heterosexual bias also reflects the resistance of the prosecution and judicial systems to prosecute same-sex offenders. The vagueness of the mandate to law enforcement personnel allows a great deal of discretion on he part of the individual officer in the disposition of a domestic violence investigation. â€Å"The lack of systematic training on this issue for police officers heightens the idiosyncratic enforcement of laws. The unpredictable nature of the police response represents a significant deterrent to reporting domestic violence among gay/lesbian/bisexual families . This occurs despite the fact that as a matter of policy, preferred arrest policies do exist in many states and localities. These policies suggest that the preferred response to a report of battering is to make the arrest. There are many resources designed to support the LGBT community. Yet, in researching policies of domestic violence issues, one will find one story after another about the fear surrounding reporting these instances to authorities. It appears that these networks provide the majority of support for many issues, and that those in the LGBT community cannot and perhaps, should not report instances of domestic violence to the police. In conclusion, it is important to remember both the similarities and the differences between heterosexual and LGBT domestic violence. Despite the fact that the same dynamics of power and control are evident in both forms, the sexual orientation of the partners, the effects of the battery, and certainly, whether there are ample helping resources should the victim decide to reach out have everything to do with how the perpetrator chooses to maintain that control. It is essential that we recognize domestic violence in all our communities. And it is essential that we build community-specific strategies to end domestic violence in all its forms. How to cite Domestic Violence in the Lgbt Community, Papers

Wyatt Earp free essay sample

Wyatt Earp BY blars719 This case involves Wyatt Earp and his unique approach to hunting buffalo while taking in the highest profit. This paper will recount his strategy and improvement of a system that, to some, was satisfactory. I will compare and contrast the ideas of Wyatt Earp against the tried and true ways of the West and draw a conclusion based on the data from the case. To undertake a hunting expedition of this caliber, one needs to be aware of the supplies needed, the manpower, and the cost that they entail. After all is said and one, it doesnt matter who killed the most buffalo. What matters is who sold the most meat and skins and had the most money in their pocket after paying for expenses. The challenges that faced Wyatt Earp are not much different than those that face a CEO of a modern day business. We will write a custom essay sample on Wyatt Earp or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In addition to supplies, the typical hunter of 1871 set out with five wagons, each pulled by four horses and led by one driver, a camp watchman, a cook, and a team of men that would skin the kill. The money that was made from the sale of the buffalo kins and its meat would be divided in half. One half would be divided among the hands and the other half would be for the hunter after all of the expenses were paid. For Wyatt Earp, this was the first system that needed improvement. He reduced overhead by utilizing one wagon with four horses, one that he would ride during the hunt, and one man that would drive the wagon, cook, and skin who he would split his profits. With this plan, Wyatt would have to assist in skinning the buffalo; a task not sually accepted by good hunters. The next aspect of his business he analyzed was the weapon of choice. The common rifle used was heavy and special care had to be taken between shots so the metal would not melt. Aim was next to impossible on horseback and to carry it up into a stand was laborious, not to mention the ammunition was heavy and also very costly. Wyatt found a much more efficient weapon that used lighter, less expensive ammunition, but the trade off was that it had to be shot from the ground. He found his to be a great value because the buffalo would ignore a man on foot, which gave him an advantage. The other part of designing a successful operation is not to set unrealistic goals. His counterparts expected to kill one hundred buffalo a day, but in all actuality, the best hunter would possibly kill 30-40 with a price of two to five dollars per buffalo. Wyatts lowest count was eighteen and the highest was twenty-seven. After all was accounted for, he and the skinner would make $20 $35 each for a days work. Wyatt Earp recognized that even though some men had killed more buffalo or had higher kill totals, his hide count was beyond the average as was his profits. In conclusion, Wyatt Earp successfully designed and organized an improved system to turn a greater profit from hunting buffalo. Although there were trade offs like using a different gun, having to help skin the kill, and using fewer resources to achieve the desired goal, he was able to effectively employ a transformation process that maximized profit.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Okapi Wildlife Reserve Essay Sample free essay sample

Abstraction The Okapi Wildlife Reserve was given its functionary protected position in 1992 and covers 8. 500 square stat mis of the Ituri rainforest’s 175. 000 square kilometres in the troubled Democratic Republic of Congo ( DRC ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Okapi Wildlife Reserve Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The sarcasm is that despite a troubled history marred with civil and tribal agitation. the part is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the African continent. The Ituri consists of lowland tropical woods every bit good as canopied rain forests that harbor an array of vegetations and zoologies found nowhere else. It is besides the place of the legendary Okapia johnstoni which has become the national and moral symbol of non merely the modesty. But salvaging the Okapia johnstoni is non a individual end ; salvaging it means salvaging 1000s of other species as good. The Okapi Wildlife Reserve was given its functionary protected position in 1992 and covers 8. 500 square stat mis of the Ituri rainforest’s 175. 000 square kilometres in the troubled Democratic Republic of Congo ( DRC ) . The sarcasm is that despite a troubled history marred with civil and tribal agitation. the part is considered one of the most biologically diverse countries in the African continent. The Ituri consists of lowland tropical woods every bit good as canopied rain forests that harbor an array of vegetations and zoologies found nowhere else ( Jenike. 1995 ) . The Reserve itself has in its protection such familiar rain forest species as Pan troglodytess. elephants. hornbills and about several species of monkeys. But its most outstanding if non elusive occupant is the Okapia johnstoni or theOkapia johnstoni; the lone life relation of the camelopard and sometimes called the forest camelopard. Physically. the Okapia johnstoni is a unusual if non absorbing animal. With chevrons similar to a zebra’s with unusual colouring and markers. it is a diffident and soft animate being which uses its camouflage-like coat to evade gaining control by marauders. It is so elusive and of course quiet that even the native folk of the Congo seldom brush or see one ( GIC. 2002 ) . Because of this rareness and gradualness amid a landscape encroached upon and endangered by assorted elements. oftentimes violent. the Okapia johnstoni has become the national symbol of preservation attempts in the Congo part. Under the flagship enterprise of Gilman International. their Okapi Conservation Project aims to do people around the universe aware that salvaging the Okapia johnstoni and its home ground does non merely intend salvaging one animal ; protecting and continuing the home ground besides means procuring the endurance and saving of 1000000s of other rainforest species of workss and animate beings ( ACF. 2002 ) . The preservation project’s success therefore relies on maintaining the forest ecosystem integral and protected. Human invasions threaten the country Human invasions in the country remain the reserve’s greatest concern. The UNESCO in peculiar has been highly vocal and concerned about go oning clangs in the country between reservess of the Congo Liberation Movement ( MLC ) . its ally the Congolese Rally for Democracy -National ( RCD-N ) . and the RCD-Kisangani-Liberation Movement ( RCD-K-ML ) . Armed warfare has damaged parts of the Okapi Wildlife Reserve which had been inscribed on the UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1996 and on the List of World Heritage in Danger the undermentioned twelvemonth ( Kuntz. 2003 ) . Specific amendss include the robbery of the reserve’s station at Epulu every bit good as the forsaking by the forest Texas Rangers who have been threatened by the reserves doing some of the forest’s species such as elephants vulnerable poaching by the armed groups ( Kuntz. 2003 ) . But human invasion comes for the most portion. from the folk life within and around the country itself. To prolong their day-to-day demands and a turning population. local husbandmans have resorted to damaging cut and burn methods of agribusiness which is easy infringing on forest land. To augment their demands. hunting is besides prevailing and this prevails despite the presence of modesty guards in the country.What protections exist to protect and continue the country? By virtuousness of being an official wildlife modesty every bit good as its inclusion among the top five sites on the List of World Heritage in Danger ( along with the Virunga. Garamba. Kahuzi-Biega and Salonga national Parkss ) the Okapi Wildlife Reserve expects an array of steps and directives from the international community every bit good as private preservation groups designed to protect its resources ( Kuntz. 2003 ) . Leading the manner in these attempts. the UNESCO at the start of the new millenary gathered local and international support to protect the modesty along with the other four endangered heritage sites as portion of its undertaking for the â€Å"Biodiversity Conservation in Regions of Armed Conflict: Protecting World Natural Heritage in the Democratic Republic of the Congo† ( Kuntz. 2003 ) . Together with the UN Foundation. the undertaking sought to happen the most important constituent to guarantee that the protection and saving of the modesty is carried out with the best agencies possible which is to beg political support from the authorities of Congo itself every bit good as the remainder of the states involved in the war. In this respect. the authorities of Congo established theInstitute Congolese por le Conservation de Nature( ICCN ) which is tasked with the protection of the vegetations and zoologies of non merely the modesty. but of the full state every bit good. The ICCN works with the Gilman International Conservation to implement security and protection steps within the area- a undertaking that entails a significant budget. Part of the budget has been drawn from the Biodiversity Conservation Program which totaled $ 4. 3 million. but this has since expired when the undertaking reached its completion in 2004 ( GIC. 2002 ) . The remainder of the budget comes from the international community of zoological Parkss which supports the Okapi Wildlife Reserve’s 90 guards every bit good as supplying them with other benefits such as wellness attention and lodging for them and their households. Other of import disbursals include costs for fuel. patrol rations. field and communicating equipment. office supplies. preparation and substructure support ( GIC. 2002 ) . What attempts have been made to further this saving? Preservation in a larger sense is non merely continuing the physical Numberss of the wildlife or works species in inquiry. but takes on a much larger sphere that includes the full ecosystem and of the assorted elements that comprise it. First and foremost is the mission of the preservation undertaking to â€Å"develop an economic and educational base on which a operation okapi modesty can operate† ( GIC. 2002 ) . The Gilman International Conservation has created a direction program specifically designed to turn to issues on fostering saving. The undertaking caputs know that saving attempts need so much support from outside groups and in this respect. Gilman has been successful in happening the important support to do its direction program feasible. It has turned the Okapi Conservation Project into a â€Å"model example† of how preservation attempts should be- that their intrinsic success depends non on a individual beginning. but should come from the corporate consciousness and collaborative attempts of all stakeholders. And the stakeholders in this respect are non merely the native peoples of the country. the Congo authorities or preservation groups. but of the full universe every bit good. The undertakings attempts to leave the message that the Ituri rain forest is but a nexus connected to a larger nexus that necessarily includes everyone else ; when that nexus dies. everything else is affected. Other saving attempts are more biological than physical. At present there are merely about 79 Okapia johnstonis in menagerie around the universe. 41 of which are in U. S. establishments and to hike this figure. there are confined genteelness attempts made to carry through this aim ( AZA. 2007 ) . For those who may be against the constructs of menagerie and captured animate beings. these confined attempts have accomplished much in raising the necessary consciousness of the predicament of the Okapia johnstoni and of endangered animate beings in general. Preservation has besides been furthered by assisting the local population. As mentioned earlier. there is the job of the cut and burn method of agribusiness which has reduced indispensable wood land area. Part of the preservation attempts is to implement an agro-forestry plan tasked to assist local husbandmans utilize their existing land ( Lukas. 2007 ) . To stave off runing of endangered species. preservations groups have taught the local people to happen alternate protein beginnings. One of these is the debut of a cane rat domestication plan. Another plan taught locals to make a genteelness pool where they implemented a fish agriculture undertaking which produces Tilapia. a various fish that strains and grows rapidly every bit good as being rather flavourful ( Lukas. 2007 ) . What extra steps to see the saving of the belongings would you suggest? It is ironical that the really people who are blessed with these great natural resources seem to be the 1s least interested in protecting them. It is important to besides observe that finally. the success and continued saving of the preserve depends on the societal and political will of the peoples of the Congo. Can we implement steps which would halt all belligerencies and armed struggle? Realistically. we can seek. but once more. declaration depends on the parties concerned who likely believe that a diffident zebra like animal who is really more of a camelopard. is no large ground for them to put aside their differences. As it is. more than any other prevalent obstruction or job. war does the most harm. During the last civil war. both the people and the wildlife in the country suffered enormously with tonss of elephants. Primatess and other wildlife killed by military personnels who had occupied the modesty. Fortunately. non one Okapia johnstoni was lost during the occupation- still ; something must be done on a degree that would for good maintain any sort of struggle out of the reserve’s confines ( Butler. 2007 ) . Another of import step to see saving of the Okapia johnstoni in peculiar is to let more menagerie to hold more specimens. Part of the key to successfully engender the species is through confined observation and there is presently a deficiency of significant Numberss of the animate being for animal scientists to analyze and detect. What will be lost if invasion goes unchecked? The okapi’s merely natural enemies are carnal marauders such as leopards and parasitic worms which can do it ill and vulnerable. Despite the fact that its elusiveness may hold contributed to its saving. continued invasion into its lone known home ground will surely cut down its Numberss. The current estimations place about 10. 000-25. 000 Okapis left in the wild and all life in the DRC ( AZA. 2007 ) . But as preservation attempts have ever emphasized. the indirect harm is even greater. The Ituri wood is besides place to a host of other species. both works and animate being and all of these are in danger of being lost if invasion. whether deliberate or non. goes unbridled. But more than merely physical Numberss of works and carnal species. what will finally be lost significantly when invasion eventually destroys the Ituri. is our human unity to protect the really ecosystems that we depend on. There is much concern that unstable climactic and geo-physical anomalousnesss are the consequence of human misdirection and so. one wood lost everlastingly to our irresponsibleness may add to an already weakened planetary nexus. Entreaty to the biological diverseness. Of the current estimations puting Okapi Numberss between 10. 000 – 25. 000 in the natural state. about 5. 000 of these are within the modesty itself along with 4. 000 elephants. 2. 000 leopards. 13 primate species and three species of crocodile. But this merely seems to be the tip of the iceberg ; there is a astonishing 1. 500 species of workss and animate beings. The figure of bird species within the modesty is besides important that it is besides a bird preservation site ( GIC. 2002 ) . But it isn’t merely workss and animate beings which contribute to the biological diverseness of the modesty ; the Ituri is besides the place of the Mbuti and Efe pigmies. one of the few staying echt forest people tribes on Earth ( Jenike. 1995 ) . These are the grounds why the Gilman International Conservation along with other concerned groups have established a plan meant to protect and continue the biological and cultural significance of the country considered to be one of the last few topographic points on Earth where human intercession and attention may spell the recovery of a really delicate and of import ecosystem. Mentions ACF ( 2007 ) Okapi preservation undertaking. Retrieved December 20. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. africanconservation. org/ AZA ( 2007 ) Okapi Fact Sheet. Retrieved December 20. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. aza. org/ Butler. R. ( 2007 ) Human threats to rain forests. Retrieved December 21. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mongabay. com/ GIC ( 2002 ) Okapi preservation undertaking. Retrieved December 21. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. giconline. org/okapiproject. htm? id=okapiproject. htm Jenike. D. . Jenike. M. ( 1995 ) A Walk Through a Rain Forest: Life in the Ituri Forest of Zaire. Fraklin Watts. Kuntz. L. I. ( 2003 ) UNESCO alarmed about state of affairs in Okapi Wildlife Reserve in Democratic Republic of Congo. Retrieved December 20. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //portal0. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. org/en/ev. php- URL_ID=8716 A ; URL_DO=DO_TOPIC A ; URL_SECTION=201. hypertext markup language Lukas. J. ( 2007 ) Okapi preservation undertaking. Retrieved December 20. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wildnet. org/index. htm